Lightning Web Component Constructor

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Lightning Web Component Constructor

Understanding the Lightning Web Component Constructor

The constructor plays a crucial role in the life cycle of a Lightning Web Component (LWC). It's the initial stage where your component's state and behavior are set up. Let's dive into the world of the constructor and explore its intricacies.

What is the constructor?

The constructor is a special function that is automatically called when a new instance of your LWC is created. It's the starting point for setting up your component's internal state and initializing any required resources.

Here's what the constructor typically does:

  • Initialize component state: You can assign initial values to your component properties and state variables.
  • Set up event listeners: You can register event listeners for events that will be triggered within the component.
  • Connect to external services: You can make initial calls to external services to fetch data or perform other actions.
  • Validate component properties: You can perform initial validations on the component's properties to ensure their validity.

Understanding the Lifecycle Flow

The constructor is the first function called in the LWC lifecycle, followed by:

  1. connectedCallback(): Invoked when the component is inserted into the DOM.
  2. renderedCallback(): Called after the DOM is updated based on the component's state.
  3. disconnectedCallback(): Called when the component is removed from the DOM.

Code Samples:

Let's see some code examples to illustrate how the constructor is used:

Example: Setting Initial State

This example demonstrates how to set the initial value of a component property in the constructor:


constructor() {
  super(); // this is required to be on first line inside constructor
  this.counter = 0;



We initialize the counter property with a value of 0. This value will be available throughout the component's lifecycle.

Use cases

There are not so many use cases for constructor in LWC because in most of the scenarios we use either connected callback or rendered callback.

One potential use case is when you want to extend the functionality of a standard HTML component or standard Lightning web component by extending using the extends keyword.

In the above scenario, you can use the constructor to pass data to the extended component's constructor.

We could do these things in a constructor as well as the connected callback. But it is always good to do the following things in connectedCallback.

  • Call apex
  • Call lightning record API.
  • Fetch data from external sources.

Things not to do in a constructor

  • Don’t use a return statement inside the constructor body, unless it is a simple early return (return or return this).
  • Don’t use the document.write() or methods.
  • Don’t inspect the element's attributes and children, because they don’t exist yet.
  • Don’t inspect the element’s public properties, because they’re set after the component is created.

Best Practices for Using the Constructor

Here are some best practices for using the constructor:

  • Keep it simple: Avoid performing complex logic or making expensive calls in the constructor.
  • Focus on initialization: Use the constructor to set up the initial state and resources, not for rendering or updating the UI.
  • Be consistent: Remember to bind event listeners within the constructor to ensure proper context.
  • Document your code: Explain what happens in the constructor and why.

By following these best practices, you can write clean and efficient constructors that lay a solid foundation for your LWC components.


The constructor is a fundamental building block of any LWC. By understanding its purpose and proper usage, you can effectively set up your components and ensure their smooth functioning throughout their lifecycle. 

Remember, a well-defined constructor is key for building robust and maintainable LWC components. 

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